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Here is a list of conditions that the Crainofacial team at Alder Hey treat:
Craniosynostosis is a condition in which the fibrous connections, between the bones of the skull, called sutures, grow together (fuse) too early during a child’s development. It most commonly affects only one of the sutures, but it can also occur in more than one suture. This fusion can cause problems with brain and skull growth. In some cases, it can lead to developmental delays and cognitive problems, especially if more than one suture is involved. Some children with craniosynostosis can also develop high pressure inside the skull, called increased intracranial pressure (ICP). The incidence of raised ICP varies according to the sutures involved.
Scaphocephaly is the most common type of craniosynostosis. Occurring in 1 in 2500 – 5000 children. This is caused by early closure of the sagittal suture which affects the bones that make up the top and sides of the head. This causes the head to look long and narrow. Children with this type of craniosynostosis have a 20% chance of raised intracranial pressure.
Trigonocephaly is the second commonest type of craniosynostosis. This is caused by early closure of the metopic suture which affects the bones that make up the forehead. This causes the forehead to be pointed in the midline, giving rise to a triangular shaped forehead. Children with this type of craniosynostosis have a very low risk of raised intracranial pressure (<1%).
Unicoronal synostosis causes fused bones along the suture that runs from the ear to the baby’s fontanelle or “soft spot.” If the fusion is on one side only, it’s a unicoronal synostosis; if it affects both sides, it’s a bicoronal synostosis. Unilateral coronal synostosis can make one side of the forehead look flattened while the other side appears to look more prominent. There can also be a degree of twisting of the face and skull with deviation of the nose. Bicoronal synostosis can make the head look short and wide.
Lambdoid synostosis is the fusion of the suture in the lower back of the skull. This can cause one side of the back of the head to look flatter than the other side. The ear on that side of the head may also stick out farther than the other ear and be pulled slightly backward. This type of crainiosynostosis is extremely rare, and much more commonly flattening in the back of the head is related to a benign condition from the way the baby sleeps known as deformational plagiocephaly which does not require surgery.
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